Loftgæðamælar margir hverjir mæla gös sem PPB sem þarf oft að breyta yfir í µg/m³. Míkrógrömm per rúmmetra.
Hérna er formúlan:
µg/m3 = (ppb*12.187*M) / (273.15 + temp(°c))
Ef temp er ekki til staðar er gert ráð fyrir herbergishita(24°c).
Corbon monoxide CO
Carbon Dioxide CO2
Hydrogen sulfide H2S
Nitrogen Dioxide NO2
Sulfur Dioxide SO2
Nitric Oxide NO
Ethylene oxide EO
https://www.vista.is/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Untitled-5-1.png12781920Heiðarhttps://vista.is/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/minna-300x111.pngHeiðar2021-07-01 14:11:022021-07-01 14:48:40Hverning á að breyta PPB yfir í míkrógrömm
Viskubrunnur fjallar núna um snjallborgin. Má segja að Snjallborgin sé sambland af mörgum gerðum af tækni sem er ætlað að bæta líf íbúa borga og bæja. Snjallborginn leitast við að innleiða lausnir sem eru vistvænar og sjálfbærar. Vista hefur upp á mikinn fjölda lausna í boði fyrir Snjallborgina.
What is a smart city?
Due to the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, Local governments are using cellular and Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) broadband innovations to link residents and visitors. The main purpose is to enhance communication, performance, comfort, and standard of living. A smart city is a platform for developing, deploying, and promoting sustainable development activities to resolve growing urbanization challenges. It is based on information and communication technologies (ICT). The cloud is a major part of this ICT system. Real-time data is received, analysed, and managed by cloud-based IoT applications to assist municipalities, businesses, and residents to make different decisions that enhance the quality of life. Citizens interact with smart city environments in a variety of ways, using their smartphones as well as they can connect vehicles and homes items. IoT is playing a vital role in garbage collection, traffic improvement, and even improve air quality.
In general term, a smart city, is one that uses technology and provides infrastructure and solve problems. A smart city enhances transit and connectivity, strengthens social services, encourages prosperity, and empowers its people. A smart city’s key objectives are to enhance economic, and social performance in the city.
Figure: Smart city
How smart city technology works?
Edge computing is also benign used in IoT devices. LTE Cat M, NB-IoT, Lora, Bluetooth, and a few other technologies are being used in connected cities. The introduction of 5G technologies is required to be a landmark moment for smart city technology, it will make the new implementations with high-speed delivery. Traditional city features, such as streetlights, are being turned into next-generation lighting control systems with enhanced capabilities. Thanks to secure wireless networking and IoT technology to incorporating solar power and linking to a cloud-based centralized power system that links to another ecosystem.
• Integrated high-power LEDs alert drivers about traffic congestion, extreme weather alerts, and environmental hazards such as fires.
• Lighting systems can also identify open parking spaces.
Features of smart cities
Smart utility meters
The smart meter is a common IoT system between utility companies. These devices link to a smart energy grid allowing utility providers to better control of energy flow. Users can monitor their energy consumption with smart meters, which has a major financial effect.
Smart transportation system
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are sophisticated software that provides the new solutions related to various modes of urban transportation control, allowing different users to be properly informed and allow more organized, and better use of transport systems. Drivers are attracted to smart transport because of voice search and location data features.
Smart Sensors for Air Quality
Modern cities are now using IoT sensors to collect a range of air quality data, containing concentrations of particulate matter, carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and more. This information is being used to make the city cleaner and much more manageable.
Smart street lighting system
A smart street light system is made up of a group of streetlights that can interact with one another and send lighting data to a central concentrator. The concentrator collects and sends relevant information to a secure server, which records it and displays it in a web-browser dashboard.
Examples of smart cities
Cities all over the world are at various stages of designing and adopting smart technology. There are, however, a few that are ahead of the competition, opening the way for truly smart cities. There are some of them:
Viskubrunnurinn fjallar um Narrowband IoT og hvernig hægt er að nýta fyrir fyrirtæki og almenning. Narrowband tækninn er kominn upp á Íslandi og er núna hægt að setja upp skynjara sem nýta sér tæknina til að senda mæligögn reglulega frá sér eða þegar frávik verða í rekstri.
What is Narrowband IoT?
Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is a super-advanced wireless technology standard released of the 3GPP cellular technology standard that meets the IoT’s LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) specifications. It has been listed as a 5G technology, with the 3GPP standardizing. It is quickly establishing itself as the best LPWAN technology for a variety of modern IoT products, such as parking system, transportation, wearable devices, and engineering solutions. NB-IoT significantly increases network performance, allowing for the support of a large number of new connections by only utilizing a small part of the potential spectrum. As a result of this performance, power consumption is reduced, allowing for a battery capacity of more than ten years. NB-IoT also enters underground and into confined areas, and provides indoor coverage.
The main characteristics of narrowband IoT are mentioned below.
Energy consumption is incredibly low.
In building and underground, the selection is outstanding.
simple integration into current cellular network design.
security and reliability of the network.
element costs are lower.
The ability to manage a large number of contacts.
High expectations for a narrowband revolution.
There are lots of different Internet of Things technologies available right now. Their heterogeneity requires a network selection that is largely inconclusive. LTE or the 5G wireless networking standard is best for machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity, such as remote system control. LAN or Wi-Fi links are appropriate for short-range networks, like computer networks or accessing smart devices at home. NB-IoT is a relatively new but rapidly growing radio technology standard developed specifically for Internet of Things applications. It is intended to cover use cases that involve only transmitting small amounts of data over long distances. It is expected to lead IoT connection development, particularly in areas where long battery life, low cost, and improved indoor performance are essential. Narrowband IoT, which uses a variant of the LTE norm, supports a wide range of links per base station and has broad indoor coverage.
NB-IoT is ideal for applications that need only a small amount of bandwidth, such as smart traffic systems, smart meters, and waste management. Indeed, NB-IoT allows the deployment of Internet of Things applications in areas where they were previously unavailable due to technological constraints and low cost-effectiveness.
The benefits of Narrowband.
Capacity of Power.
IoT technologies are designed to conserve energy when they aren’t in use, they do consume energy when the modem is in use and signal processing is taking place.
NB-IoT consume less power. An analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter, buffering, and channel capacity are all simplified with a 200 kHz. NB-IoT chips are easier to manufacture and therefore these are less expensive.
Efficiency and consistency.
Through deploying NB-IoT on a licensed spectrum, users would benefit from increased efficiency and consistency as well as the assured allocation of resources needed for controlled Quality of Service (QoS).
NB-IoT has better connections than LTE-M1. NB-IoT does not need gateways to establish connectivity. NB-IoT has the power to directly attach sensors and devices to the base station, rather than creating another piece of machinery you need to handle and operate. This would increase versatility while also reducing prices.
NB-IoT systems can be used in a wide range of service types.
Electricity, gas, and water.
Services for facility operations.
Different warnings for residential and industrial areas.
NB-IoT provides the facility of health parameters.
Viskubrunnurinn fallar um LoRaWAN og hvernig sú samskiptatækni gagnst fyrirtækjum og almenningi. Vista hefur nú þegar sett upp LoRaWan samskiptakerfi sem er notað til að stýra götulömpum með góðum árangri. Rétt er samt að skoða aðeins betur hvað LoRaWAN er og hvernig það getur nýst á hagnýtan máta.
LoRaWAN fellur undir frjálsatíðni og þarf ekki að sækja um notkunar/rekstrar-leyfi frá Póst og Fjarskiptastofnun.
What is LoRaWAN?
LoRaWAN is a low-power transmitting data network designed for wireless and fast data transfer. LoRaWAN networks are especially well-suited to transmitting small amounts of data. Two-way data connectivity, functionality, organizational structures, and ease of deployment are among their main features. LoRaWAN is a point-to-multipoint networking protocol based on the LoRa modulation scheme developed by Sem-tech. It’s built to let low-power devices connected with Internet-connected apps over long-range communication links. LoRaWAN-based IoT solutions are both cost-effective and long-lasting. Sensors for the collection of data are small and simple to install, and they don’t need any cables. Sensor batteries will last up to ten years, making the solutions virtually maintenance-free. In most cases, data is sent from the terminal computer (sensor) to the network. Messages are usually transmitted 15 times every 60 minutes. It’s not just about the radio waves; it’s about how they interact with LoRaWAN gateways to perform functions like authentication and recognition. There’s also a cloud aspect to which several gateways can link. The second and third layers of the OSI model can be converted to LoRaWAN. The LoRa Alliance defines the LoRaWAN protocols, which are documented in the LoRaWAN Specification, which can be downloaded from the LoRa Alliance website. Radio protocols like LoRaWAN are straightforward at their most basic level. LoRaWAN networks can be constructed with a local emphasis to cover a particular region or house, or they can be built to cover the entire country.
LoRaWAN network architecture
The star-of-stars framework is frequently used in LoRaWAN network architecture. This data transmission bridge connects the sensors, which are also known as terminal equipment, to the centralized network servers. LoRaWAN sensors send data to one or more gateways via wireless single-hop transmission, which are then linked to network servers via standard IP connectivity. Since LoRaWAN terminal devices do not use the IP protocol, they are connected to a network that is completely different from the internet. Three classes of LoRaWAN are active at the same time.
Symmetric communication can be achieved with class A terminal devices, so each communication is accompanied by two short retrieve windows. It is possible to specify the transmission time. It is focused on the ALOHA protocol, wherein the terminal system sends a packet when it is required to do so. Since their connectivity with servers has been minimized, class A terminal devices have the minimum energy usage. They just wait for a server to send them a confirmation message.
Using class B messages can be sent downward to battery-powered clusters. The gateway sends out a beacon every 128 seconds. Since all LoRaWAN access points are slaves to one pulse-per-second clock, they all send beacon messages at the same time (1PPS). This implies that at the start of every second, each GPS satellite in orbit communicates a message, enabling time to be coordinated around the world. Inside the 128-second loop, all class B nodes are given a time slot and informed when to hear. For example, you can instruct a node to listen for any tenth-time slot, and when one appears, a downlink response can be sent.
When large volumes of data must be received rather than sent, this form of endpoint is ideal. Class C terminals operate in both directions and have a limited number of receive positions.
The use of LoraWan networks
LoRaWAN networks can be used in a variety of IoT (Internet of Things) solutions that involve low-cost, high-reliability data transmission.
LoRaWAN solutions are particularly well-suited to sending and receiving small amounts of data over lengths of tens of kilometres or more.
Since encrypted data transmission is implemented in three separate network layers, LoRaWAN is a safe solution.
To ensure safe data transmission between both the sensors and the server, the remote computer, the program it uses, and the radio station all use their own specific encryption keys.
https://www.vista.is/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/04-Traffic-monitoring-A-scaled.jpg8882560Heiðarhttps://vista.is/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/minna-300x111.pngHeiðar2021-03-15 14:27:042021-05-11 10:55:12LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network)